There are now several possibilities to synchronise your Android phone to your Ubuntu PC locally without using a cloud.
In my first attempts to synchronise my contacts (and to migrate them from my Palm) I listed several programs ... Companion Link was the only one really usefull on Linux. But now there are several other options.
Note that I have not tested any of these programs, but they do seem interesting.
Includes a lot of possibilities, and uses a Java client. It can sync contacts and needs to instal an application (in Java) on your PC.
- Moto Phone Portal
It allows to transfer files to and from your Android device and to manage the configuration of your device from your PC browser. This application is not available from the Android Market but it can be downloaded from Mobiliens web site.
It can transfer files (including photos, videos, music) from and to your Android device. It uses a web browser to manage the transfers and can use your Android device as a WebDAV share. Supposedly better than Moto Phone Portal.
Quite a few possibilities including contact sync ... but needs a Windows program client to run on your PC. I haven't tried it on Ubuntu ... it might work using Wine (or something else).
It can synchronise contacts but also calendar, files folders, ... but it needs a Windows applications to synchronise with your PC.
All in all, some solutions to explore ... not sure of what's really usable in terms of synchronising contacts and calendars on Linux, though !
If I test any of these, I will post again.